Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Information security management framework - Research Paper Example In regards to the security of information and networks, policies typically cover a single aspect such as the acceptable utilization of computing facilities in a learning institution (Singh, 2007). On the other hand, standards are thorough and comprehensive statements of the aspects that members of an organization are supposed to participate in in order to abide by the set policies. They may exist in the form of requirements specific to systems or procedures, which are supposed to be adhered to by everyone. For instance, the employees may wish to use their personal mobile devices in the workplace; in this case, the standards set for the connection of the mobile devices to the network run by the organization must be adhered to precisely (Laet & Schauwers, 2005). Additionally, guidelines are literally groups of system or procedural specific recommendations that govern nest practices but are not must-follow controls. Nevertheless, reference to standards and guidelines is seen as an efficient and effective aspect of a good security policy. All the documents listed have varying target audiences in a company and thus they are not supposed to be combined into a single document. Rathe r, there should be a number of documents, which will collectively develop the concept of an information security policy framework thereby making the security policy the most important document
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Tuberculosis (TB) in Prisons and Immigration Removal Centres An evidence-based partnership approach to tackling Tuberculosis in Prisons and Immigration Removal Centres in London Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO) have declared TB as a global emergency with 8.6 million cases of active TB and 1.3 million deaths. The incidence of TB in the UK remains high compared to most other Western European countries, with 8,751 cases reported in 2012, an incidence of 13.9 per 100,000 population. London accounts for the highest proportion of cases in the UK (39%) and the highest rate of disease (41.8 cases per 100,000). Left untreated, one person with pulmonary TB may infect around 10Ã¢â¬â15 people every year. People in prison and IRCs represent a population who are at particular risk. National estimates for TB prevalence in the prison population are 208 per 100,000 and amongst Londons 10,000 or so prison population we would expect 20 cases, but we are seeing more than double. The cost of treating Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢ TB is around Ã £5000 and is much greater for more socially complex cases (estimated at Ã £50,000Ã¢â¬âÃ £70,000). There is considerable variation in the delivery of some aspects of TB services. A co-ordinated national TB strategy is required to support locally designed and implemented services, and monitor achievements against national standards. This paper presents findings from a partnership between NHS England, PHE and NOMS to tackle TB across its prison population in the overall approach to the overall TB strategy in London. Aims/objectives To establish whether national NICE guidance for TB in prisons and immigration removal centres is being met. Methods Target population included all 9 prisons and 3 IRCs for which NHS England (London region) are responsible. Methods used: 1) An organisational clinical audit during January 2014 using the NICE baseline assessment tool; 2) Stakeholder engagement through a steering group and a wider reference group. Results Effective stakeholder engagement contributed to a 100% completion rate. All establishments had referral pathways in place and a named contact within the local Multidisciplinary TB team and the local Public Health England health protection team. 2/12 establishments did not screen for TB within 48 hours of arrival. 3/12 did not have a local TB policy. 2/12 did not have a named TB lead. None of the DH funded x ray machines were being used in line with NICE recommendations. Latent TB was not being diagnosed or managed. Conclusions Active and systematic case finding is needed within a prison and IRC setting as well as more rigorous and standardised contingency and follow up care plans after release (or transfer). Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) have declared TB as a global emergency with 8.6 million people with TB and 1.3 million deaths due to TB (World Health Organisation, 2013). The six point Stop TB Strategy (World Health Organisation, Europe, 2013b) explicitly addresses the key challenges facing TB with the goal to dramatically reduce the global burden of TB by 2015 by ensuring all TB patients benefit from universal access to high-quality diagnosis and patient-centred treatment. However, there have been challenges in developing and implementing program-wide interventions in both high income(Migliori, Sotgiu, Blasi, et al., 2011) as well as middle and low income countries(Cobelens, van Kampen, Ochodo, et al., 2012). England and Wales have responded to the need to tackle TB where the NHS and the Department of Health have developed a national Action Plan for Ã¢â¬ËStopping Tuberculosis in EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢(Department of Health, 2004). NICE have also developed a set of National guidance fo r the identification and management of TB across a number of settings(NICE public health guidance, 2011) which highlights the need for a multi-agency approach. There has been little evidence evaluating the implementation of these guidance. What is TB? TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which spreads in airborne droplets when people with the disease cough or sneeze. Most people infected with M. tuberculosis never become ill as their immune system contains the infection. However, the bacteria remain dormant (latent) within the body, and a latent TB infection can cause active disease many years after the initial infection if immunity declines. The symptoms of TB include a persistent cough, weight loss, and night sweats. The BCG vaccine (Bacillus Calmette-GuÃ ©rin vaccine) protects against TB and it was thought possible to wipe out TB through a vaccination programme. The BCG vaccine is made from a weakened form of a bacterium closely related to human TB. Because the bacterium is weak, the vaccine does not cause any disease but it still triggers the immune system to protect against the disease, giving good immunity to people who receive it. In the past, the BCG vaccination programme was delivered to all teenagers in the UK but as TB is a difficult disease to catch because it requires prolonged exposure to an infected person, it was changed so that now only people inat-risk groups are given the vaccination. The vaccine is 70-80% effective against the most severe forms of TB, such as TB meningitis in children but It is less effective in preventing respiratory disease, which is the more common form in adults(Trunz, Fine Dye, 2006). Even with the high coverage now achieved, BCG is unlikely to have any s ubstantial effect on transmission. Risk factors that seem to be of importance at the population level include poor living and working conditions associated with high risk of TB transmission, and factors that impair the hosts defence against TB infection and disease, such as HIV infection, malnutrition, smoking, diabetes, alcohol abuse, and indoor air pollution. Preventive interventions may target these factors directly or via their underlying social determinants. The identification of risk groups also helps to target strategies for early detection of people in need of TB treatment(LÃ ¶nnroth, Jaramillo, Williams, et al., 2009). How common is TB in the UK? It has been difficult to eradicate TB both globally and in the UK. Vaccination programs and improvements in housing, nutrition and access to treatment have been largely the reason for a global decrease in TB. However, TB is still rife in less developed countries where poor conditions are still present. Several strains of TB bacteria have developed a resistance to one or more anti-TB medications, making them much harder to treat. Theglobal epidemic of HIV that began in the 1980s has also led to a corresponding epidemic of TB cases. This is because HIV weakens a persons immune system, making them more likely to develop a TB infection. The rapid growth of international travel has allowed people to travel widely and this has helped to spread of the disease. Although the rates of TB have stabilised in the UK over the past seven years, following the increase in the incidence from 1990 to 2005, the incidence of TB in the UK remains high compared to most other Western European countries(Hayward, Darton, Van-Tam, et al., 2003). There were 8,751 cases reported in 2012, an incidence of 13.9 per 100,000 population (Health Protection Agency, 2013b). The majority of TB cases (73%) occurred among people born in high-incidence countries and are generally concentrated to large urban areas with a high proportion of people born outside the UK where the rate of TB among the non UK-born population is almost 20 times the rate in the UK-born (Health Protection Agency, 2013b). London accounts for the highest proportion of cases in the UK (39%) and the highest rate of disease (41.8 cases per 100,000), followed by the West Midlands (12%; 19.3 cases per 100,000). Left untreated, one person with pulmonary TB may infect around 10Ã¢â¬â15 people every year (Department of Health, 2004). TB in prisons It is important to identify settings where the risk of TB transmission is particularly high. Groups at risk not only include people born in high prevalence areas (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia, Eastern Europe), but also people with reduced immunity (e.g. HIV, diabetes, renal failure), those with alcohol or drug problems and people who are homeless or living in overcrowded conditions (Story, Murad, Roberts, et al., 2007). These risk factors are over represented in prison populations with high levels of social and health needs. A systematic review on the incidence of TB in prisons globally (largely in the USA), showed that TB was about 26x higher than in the general population(Baussano, Williams, Nunn, et al., 2010). In the London prison population, the incidence of TB has been estimated at about 208 per100,000 (Story, Murad, Roberts, et al., 2007). Figure 1: Incidence of TB in different locations and settings[A1] Across the London prison and IRC estate, prisons are at or very close of operational capacity (ranging from 72% 103%) and with the high churn rate which increases the risk of TB transmission and poses significant challenges for TB identification and management (see Table 1). In addition, a significant proportion of the prison population are of a foreign nationality (up to 44% in one prison) and on average, just over one quarter (27%) of the prison population are foreign nationals. The majority of the prison and IRC population are under the age of 39 years old, representing another TB risk factor. Table 1: Summary of Prison Establishments Individuals at high risk for TB are typically unwilling or unable to seek and comply with medical care, and are therefore hard to reach. Individuals at high risk are also more likely to be diagnosed at a late stage of the disease and are less likely to adhere to treatment(Health Protection Agency, 2013b). In prison and IRC settings, overcrowding, late detection, barriers to adequate treatment, and poor implementation of infection control measures might also increase the TB transmission rate and improving prison conditions is a priority for any programme to control TB and reduce its spread back into the community (Levy, Reyes Coninx, 1999). TB has been identified as a key health concern where the need for greater TB control in the prison setting was highlighted in the Chief Medical OfficerÃ¢â¬â¢s (CMO) action plan for England (Department of Health, 2004). The Department of Health (DH) announced that they were to fund the installation of static Digital X-Ray (DXR) machines in large local prisons receiving people from areas with a high prevalence of TB. This led to the installation of DXR machines in 5 London prisons (and 3 out of London). All participating prisons had their machines signed off and handed over by March 2012 but due to changes in commissioners and providers during the lifetime of the project, the impact of the programme to date has been variable. More recently, the new national partnership agreement(Anon, n.d.) just signed between Public Health England (PHE), NHS England (NHSE) and the National Offender Management Service (NOMS) also draws particular focus and commitment to the epidemiology of TB in pris ons, particularly in those that have access to DXR machines. The agreement sets a priority for this year (2013-14) as: Ã¢â¬Å"Priority 11: Improving the detection and management of TB among prisoners at or near reception.Ã¢â¬ The commitment in the partnership agreement is to ensure that by April 2014, NHSE, NOMS and PHE will ensure that all fixed digital X-ray machines are fully operational and being used as part of an active care pathway in those prisons where they are currently installed. TB in IRCs Robust data relating to TB in IRCs is not routinely collected or available so there are no estimates of the incidence of TB in these settings. However, a sample of detainees in a single IRC within Southern England identified prevalence rates of 3% for TB (McLaren, Baugh, Plugge, et al., 2013) which is considerably higher than those found among the migrant population in England (Health Protection Agency, 2013b). Detainees at Harmondsworth and Colnbrook are men mostly aged 20-40 (see Table 1) and from disadvantaged areas of the world where TB is still rife. The average length of stay is around 2 weeks; although some have been detained for over 1 year. Guidance for best practice NICE have developed national guidance on the Ã¢â¬ËClinical diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, and measures for its prevention and control(NICE public health guidance, 2011), as well as more specific guidelines for identifying and managing TB among hard to reach groups (NICE public health guidance, 2012). This guidance, consistent with World Health Guidance(World Health Organisation, Europe, 2013a), aims to improve the way tuberculosis (TB) among hard-to-reach groups is identified and managed and makes specific reference to using prison and IRC settings to target these groups. NICE recommend that early identification and effective treatment of active TB provides the best outcomes, reduces onward transmission and reduces the development of drug-resistant forms of the disease. The identification and management of latent TB infection is also highlighted. The NICE guidance is based on the evidence resulting from four large systematic reviews(NICE, 2012a, 2012b, 2012c, 2012d) which informed the key recommendations relating to TB in prisons and IRCs. These include the best ways to identify TB, manage TB, organisational factors and identifying and managing latent TB. Identifying TB There are several approaches to identify latent and/or active TB in different populations. The Mantoux test is a widely used test for latent TB. It involves injecting a substance called PPD tuberculin into the skin and those that are sensitive to PPD tuberculin will develop a hard red bump at the site of the injection, usually within 48 to 72 hours of having the test. This is indicative of a latent TB. A very strong skin reaction may require a chest X-ray to confirm if this is an active TB infection(NHS Choices, 2013). The interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) is a newer type of blood test for TB that is becoming more widely available and can also help diagnosis latent TB. It can be used after a positive Mantoux test or as part of a screening or health check process. An active TB infection is usually diagnosed from a chest X-ray and samples of mucus and phlegm which are checked under a microscope for the presence of TB bacteria. A CT scan, MRI and/or biopsy will also be taken if an extra-pulmonary TB is suspected. A lack of information and awareness about TB services has been highlighted as a barrier to successful identification of TB (Brent Refugee Forum, 2007). Studies have highlighted that members of hard-to-reach groups frequently report incomplete or inaccurate information about the cause and transmission of TB with misconceptions included dirty or wet environment, sharing of domestic objects, and punishment from God (Brent Refugee Forum, 2007). Smoking(Brent Refugee Forum, 2007; Brewin, Jones, Kelly, et al., 2006; Gerrish, Ismail Naisby, 2010), poor diet and malnutrition(Brewin, Jones, Kelly, et al., 2006; Gerrish, Ismail Naisby, 2010), poverty (Brewin, Jones, Kelly, et al., 2006) however, were correctly perceived to affect susceptibility to TB. The fear of medical services as well as anxiety around the associations of TB with death have also been highlighted as barriers to diagnosing TB in high risk groups (Gerrish, Ismail Naisby, 2010; Marais, 2007; Brent Refugee Forum, 2007). Stigma is also highlighted as a major issue when diagnosing and screening for TB. Most studies with hard to reach groups describe a sense of shame and forced or voluntary isolation resulting from a TB diagnosis, although stigma was expressed differently in different groups. Homeless participants in London reported that being diagnosed with TB was embarrassing and rarely discussed among the homeless community because of the stigma attached to TB in this population(Whoolery, 2008). TB patients often face dual stigmaÃ¢â¬âfrom their own communities and their wider communities. Most studies looking at the barriers to identifying TB have been conducted in immigrant groups in community settings and there is a lack of research into the barriers to identifying TB in prison or IRC populations. In addition, there are limited studies that focus on how to improve these passive case detection approaches or contact tracing approaches. With the difficulties in identifying TB in these hard to reach groups, researchers have sought to evaluate the effectiveness of active screening for TB rather than a passive approach where it is up to the individual to make contact with health services. Active screening has been found to be an effective and cost-effective strategy in immigrants and new entrants (Laifer, Widmer, Simcock, et al., 2007; Monney Zellweger, 2005; Verver, Bwire Borgdorff, 2001), homeless and intravenous drug users(Watson, Abubaker, Story, et al., 2007) in identifying active TB cases are an early stage. In particular, the Ã¢â¬Å"FindTreatÃ¢â¬ service, which is a Department of Health-funded initiative, aims to strengthen tuberculosis (TB) control among hard-to-reach populations through active case finding using a mobile X-ray unit (MXU)(Jit, Stagg, Aldridge, et al., 2011). In addition, the FindTreat service follows up closely those on treatment and provides support in completing treatment. Although the s ervice used to screen a large number of prisoners, it had mostly stopped since the introduction of DXR machines in prisons for active case finding in new inmates. On average, each year the find and treat service identified 16 people with TB in the hard-to-reach population, who may not have been identified and treated and also managed and supports the treatment for a further 100 or more cases. Despite these studies, there is limited direct evidence for the best methods for screening for TB in prisons(NICE, 2012b). Puisis et al conducted an innovative program of high speed radiographic screening for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) at a large American correctional facility. The case finding rate for active disease with radiographic screening was approximately double the rate previously achieved with Mantoux skin testing. (Puisis, Feinglass, Lidow, et al., 1996). However, the findings are unclear how much of the difference in prevalence is caused by the different screening strategies and how much reflects different baseline disease prevalence. Another retrospective cohort study, compared the potential impact of limiting screening with mobile X-ray units to prisoners in the UK with symptoms of TB, compared with universal screening regardless of symptoms. Restricting screening just to prisoners with any of the five symptoms would have missed 36.7% of TB cases and more cases of TB would have been missed if screening was limited to a smaller range of symptoms. (S Yates; A Story; AC Hayward, 2009). The st udy is limited because although these symptoms may have been present at the time of screening, it is not known if professionals would have screened for TB based on these symptoms in real practice. Mobile X-ray unit (MXU) screening in those that are homeless, drug users or in prison have also been found to reduce diagnostic delay compared with passive case-detection and cases were less likely to be contagious on diagnosis compared with passive case-detection (Watson, Abubaker, Story, et al., 2007). However, the main limitation of this study is that results for different sub-populations were not reported separately, so it remains unclear whether any one hard-to-reach group benefited significantly from mobile x-ray screening. Chest X-ray screening has also been shown to be more cost-effective than the Mantoux test in immigrants and in prisoners(Jones Schaffner, 2001). However, the start-up costs of implementing the miniature chest radiograph screening were not taken into account. Cons idering the technology and training necessary to implement such a tool in a prison setting, this information could have had an effect on the costs. Active screening seems to increase identification of latent and active TB infection across hard-to-reach groups who are at high risk of infection, compared with passive case-detection, and leads to earlier diagnosis and reduced infective periods in those with active TB. Although the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of mobile X-ray screening is limited in prisons settings, NICE recommend that in prisons housing populations from high incidence areas and where the start-up costs had been largely funded by the DH, it was judged that X-ray screening would be cost effective. For other prisons, initial, symptom-based screening was adequate(NICE public health guidance, 2012). Managing and treating active TB Although TBcan be a very serious disease, it is possible to make a full recovery from most forms of TB with treatment. TB can usually be cured by taking several powerful antibiotics daily for several months. However, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and the poor adherence to treatment has kept TB high up on the international health agenda with WHO declaring a crisis of multidrug resistant TB (World Health Organisation, 2013). The Health Protection Agency has found that only 79% of people with TB in the UK completed treatment which is below the World Health Organisation target of 85% (Health Protection Agency, 2013c). The mix of drug regimes, treatment isolation and length of time of treatment presents a number of challenges to ensure patients adhere to treatment regimes. Adherence can be particularly difficult in those with multiple needs, e.g. homeless and seeking substance abuse treatment (Whoolery, 2008). Directly Observed Therapy Short course (DOTS) is one method used to increase adherence to TB treatment. DOT is not just the direct supervision of therapy but also considers distinct elements of political commitment; microscopy services; drug supplies; surveillance and monitoring systems and use of highly efficacious regimens (World Health Organisation, Europe, 2013b). It can be difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of DOTS as a complete strategy to increase adherence and the focus of studies have evaluated the direct supervision of therapy. For example, significantly more people adhered to more than six months of treatment when they received DOT in substance misuse(Alwood, Keruly, Moore-Rice, et al., 1994) and in foreign born individuals (MacIntyre, Goebel, Brown, et al., 2003). However, there have been limited studies into prison populations with some suggestions of improved adherence with DOT(Rodrigo, CaylÃ , GarcÃ a de Olalla, et al., 2002) and other findings showing no sign ificant differences (DÃ ¨ruaz Zellweger, 2004). The effectiveness of DOT across prison and IRC populations still remains unclear. The views of treatment and management of TB can be particularly important when considering adherence. For example, the views on traditional and modern medicine can also vary between different groups which can impact the management of TB. The Brent Refugees Forum reported that Somalis in the UK reported a preference to try traditional medicine as a first choice (Brent Refugee Forum, 2007) whereas Somalis in New Zealand would prefer modern medicine first in response to their experiences of TB related deaths in their home country(van der Oest, Chenhall, Hood, et al., 2005). Some groups preferred approaches to treatment that included both traditional and modern medicines(NICE, 2012a). Talking to the patient to find out their preferences can help patients to make decisions about their treatment based on an understanding of the likely benefits and risks rather than on misconceptions (Nunes V, Neilson J, OÃ¢â¬â¢Flynn N, Calvert, N, Kuntze S, Smit, hson H, Benson J,, et al., 2009). Very li ttle is known of the impact of TB treatment on jobs, family and children (NICE, 2012a) and in particular, the psychological impact of isolation. TB treatment should be provided on a voluntary basis and the WHO highlight the importance of Ã¢â¬Å"engaging with patients as partners in the treatment process and respecting their autonomy and privacyÃ¢â¬ (World Health Organisation, 2013). This can be a particularly important issue when concerned with isolating an individual with a suspected or confirmed case of TB, which should be undertaken on a voluntary basis and involuntary isolation should only be used as a last resort. Few studies have explored the potential benefits that patients may experience when seeking TB treatment. A small number of homeless participants reported that TB treatment helped make further lifestyle changes that improved their health in general. For example, improved living conditions and regaining relationships with family (Whoolery, 2008). Another study reported that immigrants reported a Ã¢â¬Ësocial responsibilityÃ¢â¬â¢ to seek TB treatment although this was anxiety provoking (Brewin, Jones, Kelly, et al., 2006). Evidence suggests that discussing with the patient why they might benefit from the treatment can improve patient engagement and adherence(Nunes V, Neilson J, OÃ¢â¬â¢Flynn N, Calvert, N, Kuntze S, Smit, hson H, Benson J,, et al., 2009). Organisational factors Delays in identifying and successfully managing TB can be the result of individual and service provider factors. The provisions used to deliver care and support can determine how services should be structured to manage people with TB in hard-to-reach groups. These organisational factors can include the settings used to identify and manage TB as well as the type and needs of the healthcare worker. A lack of specialist services and coordination of care can be a major difficulty in TB service provision, since most GPs see few cases of TB a year (Belling, McLaren, Boudioni, et al., 2012; Gerrish, Ismail Naisby, 2010). The complex social and clinical interactions surrounding a patient with TB can be a challenge to participation and adherence and there is a need for TB link workers to facilitate coordination of services (Brent Refugee Forum, 2007; Belling, McLaren, Boudioni, et al., 2012). Healthcare workers may find it challenging to meet the complex care needs of hard-to-reach groups with TB, especially where there are cultural and language barriers that make it difficult to interpret symptoms and explain about the disease and its treatment (Moro, Resi, Lelli, et al., 2005). In addition, service providers can also be afraid of the consequences of contracting TB, including becoming stigmatised. Non clinical healthcare workers may also have limited knowledge about TB, the need for screening and the implications of a positive test result (Joseph, Shrestha-Kuwahara, Lowry, et al., 2004). There is considerable variation in the delivery of some aspects of TB services and more research is needed in the UK on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different service structures to manage TB(NICE, 2012d). In addition to the NICE national guidance, Public Health England have produced London specific guidelines on the management of TB in prisons (Health Protection Agency, 2013a) based on pilot work across a number of London prisons. This guidance aims to minimise the risk of transmission of TB within the prison environment through efficient systems to detect ca
Monday, January 20, 2020
Bacteria Bacteria are the most common and ancient microorganisms on earth. Most bacteria are microscopic, measuring 1 micron in length. However, colonies of bacteria grown in a laboratory petri dish can be seen with the unaided eye. There are many divisions and classifications of bacteria that assist in identifying them. The first two types of bacteria are archaebacteria and eubacteria. Both groups have common ancestors dating to more than 3 billion years ago. Archaebacteria live in environments where, because of the high temperature, no other life can grow. These environments include hot springs and areas of volcanic activity. They contain lipids but lack certain chemicals in their cell wall. Eubacteria are all other bacteria. Most of them are phototrophic, i.e. they use the sun's energy as food through the process of photosynthesis. Another classification of bacteria is according to their need of oxygen to live. Those who do require oxygen to live are considered aerobes. The bacteria who don't use oxygen to live are known as anaerobes. The shape of specific bacteria provides for the next step in the identification process. Spherical bacteria are called cocci; the bacteria that have a rodlike shape are known as bacilli; corkscrew shaped bacteria are spirilla; and filamentous is the term for bacteria with a threadlike appearance. Hans Christian Joachim Gram, a Danish microbiologist, developed a method for distinguishing bacteria by their different reaction to a stain. The process of applying Gram's stain is as follows: the bacteria are stained with a violet dye and treated with Gram's solution (1 part iodine, 2 parts potassium iodide, and 300 parts water). Ethyl alcohol is then applied to the medium; the bacteria will either preserve the blue color of the original dye or they will obtain a red hue. The blue colored bacteria are gram-positive; the red bacteria are identified as gram-negative. Bacteria contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) just like all cells. However, in bacteria the DNA is arranged in a circular fashion rather than in strands. Bacteria also contain ribosomes which, like in eukaryotic cells, provide for protein synthesis. In order for a bacterium to attach itself to a surface, it requires the aid of pili, or hairlike growths. Bacteria, just like sperm cells, have flagella which assist in movement. But, sperm cells only have one flagellum, whereas bacteria contain flagella at several locations throughout their body surface.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Transportations take us to anywhere we want to go and make our life easier. Without them, we will feel like losing our feet. Cars and motorcycles are inventions for people to travel faster. They both have their supporters based on their conveniences, safeties, and expenses. First, both cars and bikes are convenient for people to travel around. They both have some kind of way of controlling the direction of travel. Motorcycles can get to the short destinations and find a parking quickly and easily. As long distance, cars have many accessories such as radio, CD players, navigational systems, and even TVs. Let riders killing times while long driving. Second, safety can be concerned since many dangerous accidents are reported. The car has a roof and windows to keep you from all kinds of weather. Moreover, seatbelts and airbags in a car are able to protect passengers form an accident. Unlike more and more accidents caused by checking phones, motorcycle riders donÃ¢â¬â¢t text on their phones while riding. They will not be distracted by food or coffee, either. The last important key element to choose between cars and bikes is expense. Motorcycles cost less. Even work-study students can afford it. In addition, bikes use less gas. 30 miles per gallon is on the low end and smaller engines can get triple digit mileage. On the other hand, when getting a car, there are a lot of choices according to the budget. If you are lucky, you can still get a fancy one with a good price. Cars and motorcycles make people travel faster. Some people like motorcycles over cars and some people prefer cars over motorcycles, depending on their conveniences, safeties, and expenses. There are still many other differences between cars and motorcycles. It is better to take some time to find out what you need before making a decision. Careful consideration of the information presented here will have much fun when driving or riding a car or a bike.
Friday, January 3, 2020
The site of Ain Ghazal is an early Neolithic village site located along the banks of the Zarqa River near Amman, Jordan. The name means Spring of the Gazelles, and the site has major occupations during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) period, about 7200 and 6000 BC; the PPNC period (ca. 6000-5500 BC) and during the early pottery Neolithic, between ca 5500-5000 BC. Ain Ghazal covers some 30 acres, three times the size of the similarly dated levels at Jericho. The PPNB occupation has several multiroomed rectangular dwellings which were built and rebuilt at least five times. Nearly 100 burials have been recovered from this period. Living at Ain Ghazal Ritual behavior seen at Ain Ghazal include the presence of numerous human and animal figurines, some large human statues with distinctive eyes, and some plastered skulls. Five large lime plaster statues were recovered, of quasi-human forms made of reed bundles covered with plaster. The forms have square torsos and two or three heads. Recent excavations at Ain Ghazal have considerably augmented knowledge of several aspects of the Neolithic. Of particular interest has been the documentation of a continuous, or near continuous, occupation from early through late Neolithic components, and a concomitant dramatic economic shift. This shift was from a broad subsistence base relying on a variety of both wild and domestic plants and animals, to an economic strategy reflecting an apparent emphasis on pastoralism. Domesticated wheat, barley, peas and lentils have been identified at Ain Ghazal, as well as a wide variety of wild forms of these plants and animals such as gazelle, goats, cattle and pigs. No domesticated animals were identified in the PPNB levels, although by the PPNC period, domestic sheep, goats, pigs, and probably cattle were identified. Sources Ain Ghazal is a part of the About.com Guide to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and part of the Dictionary of Archaeology. Goren, Yuval, A. N. Goring-Morris, and Irena Segal 2001 The technology of skull modelling in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB): Regional variability, the relation of technology and iconography and their archaeological implications. Journal of Archaeological Science 28:671-690. Grissom, Carol A. 2000 Neolithic Statues from Ain Ghazal: Construction and Form. American Journal of Archaeology 104(1). Free download Schmandt-Besserat, Denise 1991 A stone metaphor of creation. Near Eastern Archaeology 61(2):109-117. Simmons, Alan H., et al. 1988 Ain Ghazal: A Major Neolithic Settlement in Central Jordan. Science 240:35-39. This glossary entry is part of the Dictionary of Archaeology.
Thursday, December 26, 2019
The Importance of Technology Education in Schools The education world has been greatly influenced by rapidly changing technology and the increasing availability of information. Schools have advanced by leaps and bounds when it comes to incorporating technology into the learning environment, however, many more advances need to be made. In all areas of the country, educators are trying to help students keep up with technology, but there are more changes that are essential for preparing the next generation for the future. By increasing computer usage by students, installing classroom Internet access and providing instructional classes dedicated to software and hardware education, schools have tried to provide an up-to-dateÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Being proficient in using technology will be a prerequisite for almost any employment for younger students. It is the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s job to prepare many of these kids for employment, and that is especially true for the lower socioeconomic areas where students with computers at home are rare. Eisenberg and Johnson describe this basic skills education as the Ã¢â¬Å"laundry listÃ¢â¬ approach to computer education. By Ã¢â¬ËlistÃ¢â¬ they mean isolated skills, such as word processing, or searching the Internet. Ã¢â¬Å"Students need to be able to use computers and other technology flexibly, creatively and purposefully. All learners should be able to recognize what they need to accomplish, determine whether a computer will help them to do so, and then be able to use the computer as part of the process of accomplishing their task.Ã¢â¬ 1 Educators must also help students to become technologically flexible. One of the largest problem that I see almost everyday is a computer userÃ¢â¬â¢s unwillingness to try new or upgraded software. Many people get use to using certain programs and getting them to try new versions or different manufacturersÃ¢â¬â¢ products is nearly impossible. Students these days must be able to shorten the learning curve on new software, and be comfortable in exploring unfamiliar programs. The same could also be said for exploring computer hardware. In the town of Claremont, New Hampshire, students are given the opportunity to explore the guts of aShow MoreRelatedAs Some Schools Plunge Into Technology, Poor Schools Are1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAs some schools plunge into technology, poor schools are left behind. (2012, January 24). Retrieved March 10, 2017. In this article, the authors indicate that students in high-poverty schools lack education because of the absence of technology in the schools. They explained that students who do not have the experience with technology fall behind academically compared to wealthier students. They discussed the importance of technology for the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning and they believe that without technologyRead MoreTechnology In The Classroom1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The school district that I currently teach in is a small rural school district in eastern Colorado. Students are performing below state standard expectations on standardized test scores. Many teachers in the district do not use technology in their classrooms. Many teachers are older teachers who have been in the district for several years and teach the same way they did when they first started teaching. I am part of the districtÃ¢â¬â¢s technology committee. It is a widely held belief thatRead MoreThe Importance of Tec hnology1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAccording to Vikram (7), technology refers the application of scientific knowledge and skills for practical purposes in diverse fields such as industries, education, and agriculture among other fields. Technology is therefore an organized knowledge for practical purposes in human day to day life. The fundamental purpose of every human life is to increase standards of living, improve the quality of his life and to always have a greater satisfaction in life (Vikram 8). These fundamental purposes canRead More Technology Needs in the Special Education Secondary Classroom1370 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages In secondary school settings the use of technology within the special education classroom is lacking. Special education class rooms and resource settings utilize only the basic, out of date technology that has been in use for many years. Typically the only available technology made available to special education or resource settings are the overhead projector, television, and tape recorder. According to the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (2009), seventy-five percent of students withRead MoreThe Impact Of Computer Science Education On The Curriculum1017 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAtchison, Williams F.. Ã¢â¬Å"The impact of computer science education on the curriculumÃ¢â¬ . T he Mathematics Teacher 66.1 (1973): 7Ã¢â¬â83. Computer science promotes a meaningful life. Computer science means the principles and use of computer. It not only limits there because computer science defines mathematics everyday life. The author argues the effect of computer science at all over our curriculum in high school. This is important because computer science compels students to create problem to solving thusRead MoreComputer Science Is A Meaningful Life999 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshigh school. This is important because computer science compels students to create problem to solving thus engage them more into work, especially mathematics. Computer science motivates work in mathematics as it relates to each other. It is a program moved down from Graduate to bachelors because it creates a better understanding of applications and critical thinking. As the world of technology grows, the importance of computer science also expands. A lot of students drop out of high school becauseRead More Technology in the Mathematics Classroom Essay1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Technology in the Mathematics Classroom In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, technology is advancing at such a rate that on can hardly stay ahead. Technology surrounds every person in civilization. To not use the technology that is readily available would be absurd. The same idea applies to technology in the classroom. Calculators, in particular, are becoming more readily available in the classroom, but technology should not stop there. Many inspiring computers programs, such as GeometerÃ¢â¬â¢s Sketchpad, Read MoreMath 106 And Its Effect On Students1268 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescomprehend and solve the problem. Math 106 teaches future educators the importance of positive teacher feedback, peer input and modeling, and providing various methods to teach or practice the same material. All students are different: race, socioeconomic status, religion, ethnicity, culture, beliefs etc. Therefore, it is essential for teachers to show no bias and provide every student an equal opportunity to succeed. In Education 204, stereotypes in the classroom where addressed heavenly. We learnedRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology On The Classroom1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswork, and school. The largest factor of change seems to be the rate at which technology is being developed and is becoming a part of our everyday life. One of the largest arguments with the advancing technology is whether or not itÃ¢â¬â¢s good for teaching and learning purposes in the classroom. From email to online classes, computers are defiantly manipulating our lives, and can enhance learning in the classroom in various ways. The growing popularity of technology emphasizes the importance for studentsRead More The Positive Impact of Technology on Education Essay689 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Positive Impact of T echnology on Education Today, technology is found everywhere in education.There are computers in many of the classrooms and schools contain computer labs, or at least numerous computers in the library available to students. In my paper, I want to discuss some of the positive and negative effects that technology has on education. Throughout my schooling, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen technology go through different stages of importance in education.When I was in elementary, I remember
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Long believed relationships between societyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and the ability to sustain a democratic form; have been evaluated over the years. Other cultures or religions have been proven to exhibit more conduciveness of democracy than others. Persistence of democracy within a religion falls under choice of assumptions, actions and costs toward others. As a religious institution, democracy applies also to cultural perspectives. The American Catholic Church could analyze democracy with ongoing tensions as social competitors of power or resources. Seeking the related aspects of Catholicism and democracy, the actions and words of the clergy directly influence political outcomes. The circumstances of the life of modern man have been so profoundlyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In this, the Catholic American culture exhibited profound models that shaped the Catholic Church. Catholics had another reason to stand tall. They had a new pope, John XXIII. Elected in 1958, he too brought a new style to his office. Unlike his predecessor, Puis XII, John was an outgoing, gregarious individual. He could charm heads of state as well as common people. John did away with many imperial trappings of the papacy. He was the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s pope, whose warmth, urbane style was much like that of John F. Kennedy. People began to speak of the two JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s like they had a common destiny. The death of them both in 1963 sealed this connection (Dolan, 192). The experience of collaboration and consolation has conditions a generation of Catholics to think that their religion nurtures a democratic spirit among its people. This expectation comes into direct conflict with an opposing model of church that envisions Catholicism as a hierarchical institution in which the clergy are the sole decision makers. Both of these visions of church were present at Vatican II and were appare nt in the council document about the church. At the council sessions the more collegial model of church became more normative, operational theology that most council fathers endorsed (Dolan, 210). Looking back at this era from the twenty-first century, an obvious question is what was the VaticanÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to this democratization of CatholicismShow MoreRelatedReligion, Religion And Religion1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesReligion is a concept that is passed down from generation to generation. Thankfully, because someone decided to write the religious values down, same of religions core concepts havenÃ¢â¬â¢t changed much. But people typically donÃ¢â¬â¢t learn their religion by growing up and finding a bible or Quran and reading it. People form religious identities from their culture and how a person is shaped by the world. Religion will forever refuse to die because it gives people a purpose in this world. The people thatRead MoreReligion : Religion And Religion Essay1496 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesReligion. Whenever I hear people talking about that word, I draw a blank. I start to question what really is religion, why is it so talked about, and why is it such a big deal to our society. Recently I learned that religion was a concept that was created by mankind a long time ago. Yet religion isnÃ¢â¬â¢t something that has one specific definition, because people have different religious constructs within their cultures around the world. Before taking this class, I never had a definition that I likedRead MoreReligion And Religion : Religion866 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTITLE What is religion? Religion can be many things depending on which religion one practices, but one thing remains the same across every religion and that is that it is all based on faith. The core of every religion is an abstract thing. Religion is ultimately reliant on belief in invisible beings, inaudible voices, ethereal entities, and events and judgments that occur after we die. It is a fabrication of our minds. Religion requires its followers to simply accept it, without solid evidenceRead MoreReligion, Religion And Religion1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages When discussing religion, many people have different perspectives about religion beliefs and how to approach it. Religion is grouped in different sections such as, religion and spirituality, religion and philosophy, and religion and politics. Religion has many different views from different cultures because everyone approaches it differently with different beliefs also. To make something religion, is to have some type of belief in God, but everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s belief is different depending on the cultureRead MoreReligion : Religion And Religion1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesProfessor Jensen Religion Studies 102 Meaning of Life: Religion Throughout human history, religion is now and always has been the main topic of discussion. In my paper, I will discuss reasons why it is important to study religion and how it was constituted. Religion is what makes us who we are today. Therefore, there are many reasons to study religion. Religion has shown itself as being able to unite people and to divide them since everyone has his or her own beliefs. The study of religion is not onlyRead MoreReligion : Religion And Religion935 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdiscussing the overall religion of what is typically traditional to be called religion. Religion which is commonly known as the belief in the supernatural naturally produces a influence of the making of society throughout what is known as history. Commonly as we know it from day to day many people of different cultures, races are largely structured by religion. Religion affects more than culture it effects law and politics as well as education and behavioral norms. Religion started during the secularRead MoreReligion, Religion And Religion879 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshundred different religions in the world, all proclaiming different things, it can getting a little frustrating to decide on one to call home. However, every Religion claims to be the one true religion. Is it the fact that one has a large following, or even a large building erected in the manifestation of the words they proclaim? Or is it a minute group of disciples focused on solving the ever frightening problems that the world faces every day? Mirriam Webster Dictionary defines a Religion as Ã¢â¬Å"the beliefRead MoreReligion : Religion And Religion Essay1333 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Today our world is brimming with diverse cultures, religions, and languages. Being diverse make each individual unique from others. According to the Isaak Sevensson article Ã¢â¬Å"religion has come to play an increasingly important role in shaping todayÃ¢â¬â¢s worldÃ¢â¬ . In general religion, con flicts are more about human nature than religion itself. People usually create problems and blame the God, saying my religion said it or it s written in the holy book. God is not the one who created different amongRead MoreReligion, Religion And Religion1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Religion is a very difficult topic for me to navigate, and a rather personal one. While on the surface I might seem very atheistic and anti-religion, this is very far from the truth. I have had quite a complicated relationship with religion over the years, and it is still something I am struggling to figure out. When I was in primary school we were taught quite a lot about religion. It was something that was constantly there in the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s agenda, with assemblies every Monday morning in whichRead MoreReligion And Religion902 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe incorporation of religion into a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life displays how a belief in gods can impact every facet of someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The entirety of religion is based solely on faith and the willpower of someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s belief in what has been taught to them. In these teachings, through sacred texts, manuscripts, or orally transmitted; the basis of many religions is the idea of an object, person, or building being sacred. The reason something becomes sacred and is then believed to be sacred is because the sacred